May/June 2018  
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Issue No. 3 - 2018 of the International VAT Monitor is now available online.

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Other publications and courses available on VAT:

Nexus Requirements for Taxation of Non-Residents’ Business Income
Available in print and eBook format.
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Advanced VAT Optimization
6-7 December 2018
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Number 3 - 2018 contains the following:
EU Proposes New VAT Scheme for Small Businesses
Michael van de Leur
GCC VAT – International Services
Howard R. Hull and Roberto Scalia

In this article, the authors focus on the international supply of services in GCC member states. This includes the place-of-supply rules and the VAT treatment of inbound services into GCC markets, outbound services from GCC markets and intra-GCC services. In order to address these subjects, the authors rely significantly on the GCC VAT Agreement. The authors also explore how Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have addressed the VAT treatment of the international supply of services within their legislation, executive regulations and administrative practice.

VAT Grouping in Italy and the Skandia Judgment
Marco Abramo Lanza and Marco Zanetti
From 1 January 2019, taxable persons established in Italy can be part of an Italian VAT group. In this article, the authors analyse how the ECJ decision in the Skandia case and the Guidelines of the VAT Committee published by the European Commission in relation to that decision have had an impact on the Italian VAT legislation. The authors also discuss possible scenarios in which Italian branches or main establishments can be involved in the future and to which the Skandia case and the Guidelines will be applicable.
VAT Treatment of Initial Coin Offerings
Aleksandra Bal
Initial coin offerings (ICOs, also referred to as token sales) are a new means of raising capital where new cryptocurrencies (tokens) are sold for other cryptocurrencies or legal money. In this article, the author examines the VAT treatment of ICOs and investigates whether the principles established by the Court of Justice of the European Union and the VAT Committee in relation to Bitcoin transactions can be transposed to token sales.
Virtual Currencies in Mexico: Is Bitcoin Subject to VAT in Mexico?
Fernando Juárez Hernández and Raymundo Vázquez Hernández
In this article, the authors discuss the VAT treatment of sales and transfers of Bitcoin carried out in Mexico. For this purpose, they analyse the current state of Mexican law, but also review the applicable VAT regime in jurisdictions around the world, such as in Japan, Spain, Switzerland and the European Union. The authors then provide an overview of recently enacted legislation in Mexico and its foreseeable impact on the VAT treatment of Bitcoin.
Mercedes Benz Case: Sale of Goods or Services?
Anton Joseph
The concept of “leasing agreement” has no unambiguous definition under EU law and the question regularly arises in which circumstances leasing agreements should be treated as “hire purchase” in the sense of article 14(2) of the VAT Directive, hence be treated as supplies of goods and not services. In this article, the author discusses the recent ECJ decision in the case of Mercedes Benz Financial Services UK, which appears to put an end to the discussion within the European Union. The author also compares the situation in the European Union with the current state of the law in Australia.

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